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|The House of the Chemical Faculty of Kazan State University|
The Tatarstan Academy of Sciences and Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, uniting numerous academic institutions of the All-Russian level, are located in Kazan. More than 100 branches of scientific and research institutes function in the republic.
The main fields of fundamental and applied research include: magnetic-phenomena physics, medicine and medical equipment, optical and microelectronics, theory and techniques of oil recovery, organic and physical chemistry, development of composite materials technology, different fields of modern mechanics and mathematics, etc.
|The Monument to A.M.Butlerov|
In the Republic training of scientific personnel is systematically carried out. More than 160 thousand students are taught in 23 state universities and 26 branches of the universities. Besides, there are as many as 14 non-state universities operating in Tatarstan as well as their 30 branches. Overall, more than 210 thousand students are taught in Tatarstan.
The development of scientific schools in Kazan started back in the last century; the Kazan chemical school created in the 1840-s under the guidance of N.N.Zinin, A.M.Butlerov, A.M.Zaitsev enjoying the greatest authority. It is in Kazan that a magnificent pleiad of Russian organic chemists worked, who, according to D.I.Mendeleyev, paved the way to the independent existence of the domestic chemistry.
For many years the Kazan chemical school was headed by an academician, twice the winner of the State Prize, Hero of Socialist Labor А.Е.Arbuzov (1877-1968), one of Russia's most prominent researchers in the field of the organophosphorus compounds, who made a great contribution to the development of chemical science.
It was also in the last century that the Kazan mathematical school was formed. The brightest representative of it was N.I.Lobachevsky, a great geometrician, founder of non-Euclidean geometry, who was half a century ahead of the discoveries in the field of space theory at that time.
Following the traditions of N.I.Lobachevsky, Kazan scientists contribute to the development of a broad field of research. Kazan boasts one of the international mathematical centers once headed by an outstanding algebraist, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences N.G.Chebotaryev (1894-1947). University professors V.V. Morozov, B.L.Laptev, A.P.Norden, B.M.Gagayev, M.T.Nuzhin made a great contribution to the development of mathematics.
The Kazan physicists are world famous nowadays as well. Kh.M.Mushtari , a prominent scientist, doctor of sciences has been at the head of the Institute of Applied Physics for many years. It is under his guidance that a scientific school for the theory of thin coverings was formed which are part of the composition of many modern constructions (airplane fuselage, ship hull, oil tank wall).
Scientists continue to research paramagnetic resonance discovered by academician E.K.Zavoisky, who for the first time in the world observed this phenomenon in 1944 in the laboratory of Kazan University.
The discoveries in the field of paramagnetic resonance have found wide practical application. This method of physical research virtually allows an insight into the depth of substance, the nature of atoms, molecules, crystals, liquids. The method of electronic and nuclear paramagnetic resonance is widely used in nuclear physics, chemistry, mineralogy, biology, medicine.
The medical faculty opened in 1814 at Kazan University initiated the creation of the Kazan medical school. Many outstanding scientists contributed to its fame: professor of anatomy E.F.Aristov and his apprentice, outstanding scientist P.F.Lesgaft, physiologists - full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences F.V.Ovsyannikov, his disciples - professor N.O.Kovalevsky, N.A.Mislavsky, professor A.F.Samoylov, who was the first to write down electrocardiogram and apply it for diagnostics of heart diseases in Russia.
It was in Kazan that a school of general pathology was established headed by an apprentice of I.M.Sechenov, professor V.V.Pashutin.
The Kazan surgical school was founded by the brilliant scientists - surgeons, professors I.I.Studensky, L.L.Levshin, V.I.Razumovsky. Kazan honors the name of professor V.S.Gruzdev, who left his bright mark both on the history of Kazan gynecologic clinic named after him and all domestic gynecology. V.S.Gruzdev and his apprentices developed radium drug and applied it for treatment of gynecologic cancer.
The first faculty of psychiatry in Russia was founded in Kazan by the outstanding psychiatrist named V.M.Bekhterev. The founder of domestic science of eye illnesses professor V.E.Adamyuk and his talented apprentices A.G.Agababov, V.V.Chirkovsky worked in Kazan at the same time with him.
The traditions of the Kazan surgical school were successfully developed by professor A.V.Vishnevsky and V.L.Bogolyubov. A.V.Vishnevsky developed a method of anesthesia - a creeping-infiltration method, a precious contribution to the scientific and clinical surgery. His research on novocaine block and oil-balsam bandages greatly contributed to the development of therapy.
A.V.Vishnevsky's ideas were continued by professors N.V.Sokolov, I.V.Domrachev, S.M.Alekseyeva, I.F.Kharitonov.
The State institute for advanced training of physicians created in 1920 in Kazan annually improves professional skill of doctors from all over Russia. The main fields of research conducted by scientists of the institute are the problems of oncology, cardiovascular pathology and rentgenocraniology.
The faculty of orthopedy and traumatology is far-famed. Its founder, professor L.I.Shulutko was among the first ones to be elected a member of the international organization of orthopedists-traumatologists. His method of plastic surgery was "discovered" in France only a quarter of century later.
In Tatarstan intensive research on advanced areas of science is carried out: nanotechnology, medicine, supramolecular chemistry, metal complex catalysis, petrochemical and biotechnology, chemistry and technology of macromolecular compounds, conjugate to the physical and mathematical modeling and design of energy-saving technologies and new products. Staff scientific potential of the republic is over 1500 doctors, about 6000 candidates.
The role of high-tech manufacturing and advanced innovative technologies in the economy of the Republic of Tatarstan is rapidly increasing. To increase the share of innovative products in the gross regional product a strategy of research and innovation development activities in the Republic of Tatarstan until 2015 has been implemented with a program of innovative activity development having been launched within its bounds. Its realization includes the formation of a network of tech parks, the creation of which is aimed at supporting the commercialization of scientific developments and innovative development of industrial production. There are 14 tech parks, as well as 5 business incubators operating in Tatarstan; the largest of them being the Innovative Tech park "Idea" and the Kama Industrial Park "Master".
The sphere of nanotechnologies is a top priority for the Republic of Tatarstan. For the first time, a draft of the Integrated Regional Development Program of the Republic of Tatarstan for nanotechnology until 2015 is being prepared in Tatarstan. Within the bounds of the priority national project "Education" begun the training of qualified personnel specializing in "Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in electronics" has kicked off. A number of universities carries on programs intended to boost the competence level of experts much sought after in the field of nanotechnology, namely the Kazan State Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev, Kazan State Technological University named after S.M. Kirov and the Kazan State University named after V.I. Ulyanov-Lenin.
Tatarstan regularly hosts the All-Russian international scientific conferences and symposiums. In memory of the outstanding Tatarstan scientists, a number of prestigious international prizes were founded, including the International Zavoisky prize, International Lobachevsky prize, International Arbuzov prize in the field of organophosphorus chemistry. Scientists of the Republic are also awarded the State Prize of Tatarstan in the field of science and technology, research grants and awards to young scientists.
Tatarstan is fairly considered one of Russia's leading scientific centers.