State > Geographical Location
Geographical Location

Tatarstan is situated in the centre of the Russian Federation on the East-European Plain at the confluence of the two greatest rivers - the Volga and the Kama. The overall territory of the Republic is 67,836.2 sq. km. The Republic extends some 290 km north to south and 460 km west to east. Tatarstan has no borders with foreign states.

Republic of Tatarstan and Adjacent Regions
The territory of the Republic is a plain which lies in forest and forest-steppe zone with small hills on the right bank of the Volga and in the south-east of the Republic. 90 per cent of the territory is 200 m above sea level.

The major part of Tatarstan lies in the forest zone with only its south regions located in the forest-plain zone. However, today only a small part of Tatarstan is covered with forest (16.2 per cent of a total area). The Pre-Kama region is dominated by coniferous and mixed forests. Banks of the Volga, the Kama, the Vyatka and other rivers are covered with coniferous forests. Broad-leaved and birch and aspen forests prevail in the Pre-Volga and the Trans-Kama regions. As noted above, deciduous tree generally prevail in the Republic, i.e. nearly 85 per cent of a total forested area, which includes oak (27 per cent), lime (14 per cent), birch (11 per cent) and aspen (24 per cent). Among conifers, pine is the most frequent (nearly 12 per cent of a total forested area). Dry valleys and steppe areas still exist on non-cultivated hillsides in southern and south-eastern regions. Marshes prevail in the vicinity of shoals of water reservoirs and in forests.

Local fauna is represented by 430 species of vertebrates and hundreds of species of invertebrates.

The climate is moderate-continental. Droughts are occasional. Average temperature of the coldest month (January) is -13C, of the warmest (July) +19C. Annual average amount of precipitation is 460-520 mm. Vegetation period is about 170 days.

Soils are very diverse. Nearly one third of the total area of the Republic (32 per cent) is occupied by black-earths. As indicated above, black-earths prevail in the Pre-Volga regions, in the west and in the east of the Trans-Kama region. Greyish and dark greyish forest and podzol soils, which cover nearly 38 per cent of the Tatarstan's territory, frequently occur in the Pre-Kama region, in the north of the Pre-Volga region, in the north-east and in the centre of the Trans-Kama region. Turf-podzol soils prevail in the north of Tatarstan, on the left bank of the Volga and the right bank of the Kama. The share of such soils constitutes some 17 per cent of the territory. Alluvial soils dominate in river bottoms.