Kazan State University
Kazan State University is one of the largest and the oldest cultural, educational and scientific center of the Russia. It was established by the Emperor Alexander I November 5 (17), 1804 for the purposes of spreading education in a vast region from the Volga region to the Far East.
Simultaneously with the Affirmative Letter of Imperial Kazan University Alexander I signed the First Charter of Imperial Kazan University. This Charter provided for the creation of four faculties at university (moral and political sciences, physical and mathematical sciences, medical sciences, verbal sciences with faculty of oriental languages), 28 professors, 12 adjuncts, 3 lecturers and 3 teachers of “pleasant arts”.
The university is situated in the central part of Kazan which is the city with million of citizens and a thousand-year-old history. For many years it was the most east higher educational institution of Russia: its district included the Volga region, the Penza and Tambov provinces, Kama region and Ural region, Siberia, Caucasus
As a single scientific organism the University had come into being in 1830-1840 under the rector N.I.Lobachevsky, the famous mathematician and founder of non-Euclidean geometry. He laid the foundations of the scientific traditions of Kazan University. The Kazan University scientists formed in opinion of world scientific community the image of Kazan as the city of high culture and great science. In the University the outstanding scientific schools were founded and developed. Among them the physics school represented by the names of E.K.Zavoysky, S.A.Altshuler; the chemical school – by the academician N.N.Zinin, A.M.Boutlerov, A.E. and B.A.Arbouzov; the famous school of mathematics and mechanics. Russian oriental studies were founded here. In presence of N.I.Lobachevsky in 1833, at the University opened the first in Europe chair of Mongol language, in 1837 – the first in Russia chair of Chinese.
The names of many outstanding persons were connected with the history of University: the writers L.N.Tolstoy and S.T.Aksakov, composer M.Balakirev, astronomers I.M.Simonov and I.A.Littrova, psychologist V.Bekhterv, orientalists I.F.Gotvald, H.D.Fren and A.K.Kazem-Bek and others.
In XX century, starting from 1922, on the basis of faculties and departments of the Kazan State University were formed many state institutes of higher education of e Tatarstan. Among them the Kazan State Academy of Agriculture, the Kazan State Teacher’s Training University, the Medical University, the Kazan State Technological University named after S.M.Kirov, the Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute, the Kazan Law Institute, the Kazan state Technical University named after A.N.Tupolev. At present, these institutes of higher education are – the major educational institutions and scientific centers of Russia.
Present days of the Kazan State University
Today the Kazan State University named after V.I.Ulyanov-Lenin is one of the cultural, educational and scientific centers of the Russian Federation.
At present more than 240 Doctors of Science, professors and 685 Candidates of Science 602 post-graduates, persons working for doctor's degree and probationers are employed at the University. The total number of University staff is more than 3700. Of them 1122 are the teaching staff (including 217 Doctors of Science and 605 Candidates of Science), 340 – research officers. The total number of the students – about 17000.
The University has its own publishing house, printing house, laboratory of small offset printing. This available base allows to publish without delay the results of work by scientists and training aides with modern world level design.
The University – initiator of scientific congresses, conferences, seminars with the broad participation of the scientists from another scientific centers. The number of such events comes up to 20 in a year. Thus, in 1999 there were held 16 conferences including 7 international ones. The scientists of University participate in more than 90 outside conferences annually, 50% of them at international level. There were published about 50 monographs, 160 text-books and 2500 scientific articles annually, 25% of them – in foreign editions.
The researches activities are realized in frames of 37 basic scientific directions corresponding to the training profile of specialists in the University.
The Kazan University fulfils the number of government and inter-college scientific and technical programs:
1. The basic research programs of Ministry of sciences and technology of Russia: general physics and astronomy, high-temperature superconductivity, the latest methods of bioengineering, the present problems of mathematics, investigations of animate nature and biotechnology;
2. The scientific and technical programs of Ministry of education of Russia: universities of Russia, conversion and high technologies, chemistry, biotechnology, development of humanitarian researches, noo-sphere and sustainable development, techno-parks and innovations, integration of higher school and Russian Academy of Science.
Kazan State University takes an active part in international academic cooperation. The University is the member of International association of the universities, Euro-Asian association of the universities, University Union for democracy.
At present, the Kazan university enjoys partner relations with more than 50 universities and international educational organizations from 17 countries of the world. Among them Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Canada, China, Poland, USA, France, Switzerland and others. The agreements were signed on scientific and cultural cooperation with universities of Siena, Palermo (Italy), University of Arizona (USA), Lund University (Sweden).
The University continues cooperation with its permanent partners: the universities of Gissen (Germany), Luven (Belgium) and Granada (Spain). An exchange of students and lecturers keeps going, the joint researches are being held, various projects are under way.
Thanks to this partnership the University participates in works on European, UNESCO and UN projects. The University is a participant of IREX, NATO, Eurasia, Fulbright, USIA, DAAD, TEMPUS, INCO-Copernicus programs.
Marking a special place of the Kazan University, its role in development of the Russian science and education, the President of the Russian Federation B.N. Yelsin by the Decree from July 30, 1996 included the Kazan State University in State Code of especially valued objects of cultural heritage of the nations of Russian Federation. The President of the Republic of Tatarstan M.Sh.Shaimiev December 25, 2000 signed the Decree “On celebration of 200th anniversary of the foundation of Kazan State University” that approved the structure of organizing committee on preparation and realization of the measures devoted to 200th anniversary of the foundation of Kazan State University.
The actions on development of Kazan University were included in the Federal target program “Preservation and development of the historical center of Kazan city” approved by the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation as of March 14, 2001 №180.
Achievements of scientists of the Kazan University. Importance of the event in regional and international aspects
For 200 years of the existence the Kazan State University has turned into the largest educational and cultural center of the region, contributed to creation of new universities and institutes. Scientific schools of chemists, mathematics, linguists, orientalists have gained a worldwide reputations as far back as the XIX century. In XX century, at the Kazan State University the discoveries of world significance were made, in particular, electronic paramagnetic resonance effect. Kazan University became the first university that started to train the specialists on nature protection (ecology) (since 1969). The unique collection of books in Scientific Library and in seven museums of the University has an outstanding cultural importance. The new progressive ideas in all spheres of science, culture and art appeared and always were realized in the Kazan State University.
The phrase “for the first time in Russia, in science” in many respects relate to the name of Kazan State University. For example,
in the field of mathematicsIn February of 1826 N.I.Lobachevsky wrote the first works on discovery of non-Euclidean geometry.
The basic studies of A.G.Imshenetsky on integration of equations in partial derivatives obtained the recognition in scientific circles. F.M.Souvorov was the first in Russia who continued the study of non-Euclidean geometry by investigating of invariants of Riemann spaces. The fundamental mechanics of non-Euclidean spaces were defined by A.P.Kotelnikov. Astronomer P.S.Poretsky was the first in Russia who developed the mathematical logic.
A.Z.Petrov in 1952-1954 proved the theorem on existence of tree types of Einstein spaces (later in world literature they were named Petrov types). Soon it became known that the belonging to the second and the third of Petrov types points on the presence of gravitational emanation in space.
I.S.Gromeka made a number discoveries in hydromechanics. He gave the original presentation of the capillary effects theory by investigating the movement of whirls on sphere, investigated movement of drops, movement of viscous fluid in tubes and discovered the spiral type of fluid movement.
in the field of organic chemistryIn 1842 N.N.Zinin discovered the method of transformation of bitter-almond-oil into benzol, described famous transformation reaction of nitrobenzene into aniline using hydrogen sulphide that plays an important role in production of aniline dye. Zinin’s discoveries for the first time made the foreigners to feature “the Russian chemistry”. Zinin’s name occupied an outstanding place in lists of members of various organizations. Besides Russian organizations (Kazan university, mineralogical society and others) he was considered a member of French Academy of Science, Berlin and London chemical society.
In 1844 K.K.Klaus discovered ruthenium (lat.Ruthenia – Russia) – metal of platinum group.
In 1863 A.Ya.Danilevsky organized the first in Russia chair of biochemistry in medical faculty of Kazan university.
At the end of 50th of XIX century A.M.Boutlerov developed the theory of chemical structure of substance that was the greatest contribution in science and brought him a world fame. Besides, in 1864-1866 he synthesized a methylen iodide, discovered a formaldehyde polymer, obtained an urotropine and the first artificial sweetener named methyl ethane.
In 70th of XIX century V.V.Markovnikov proved the existence of isomerism among fatty acids. He discovered the number of regularities concerning the reactions of substitution, addition and partition of atoms in chemical compounds. The regularity of addition of halogens to unsaturated organic compounds obtained the name “Markovnikov rule”.
B.A. and A.E.Arbouzov made the investigations of phosphorous carboxylic acids, clarified the structure of Boid chloranhydride, obtained for the first time the esters of pyrophosphoric, pyro- and hypophosphoric acids, discovered the catalytic reaction of phosphoric acid average esters rearrangement that received the name of Arbouzov rearrangement or isomerization and became one of the most important methods of organophosphorus compounds synthesis.
The researches on study of molecules space pattern of organic compounds promoted to formation and development of new branch of organic chemistry - conformational analysis.
in the field of physiologyIn 60-70th of XIX century the laboratory of H.O.Kovalevsky became the first center of the circulation of the blood physiology in Russia.
In 60th XIX century N.O.Kovalevsky, the first among Russian scientists started to develop physiology of breathing and created at the same time his own original construction of device for research. He also for the first time offered the method of gas analysis for definition of gaseous exchange.
Here phenomena of paradoxical expansion of pupil was discovered as well. This effect became the first experimental proof of humoral transfer of excitation that served as basis of the chemical theory of excitation transfer in vegetative nervous system.
In Kovalevsky’s lab, the student N.M.Sokovnikov in 1873 discovered new type of reflective action – peripheral or local reflex .
In 1889 N.M.Sokovnikov and NV.M.Rozhansky for the first time described the special type of reaction named axon-reflex.
In 80th of XIX century in laboratory of N.O.Kovalevsky the study of cerebral hemispheres cortex function began
In 1885 V.M.Bekhterev organized the psychophysiological laboratory under the chair of nerve and mental diseases of the Kazan university. It was the first in Russia and the second in Europe laboratory (after the Vund laboratory) where the studies on experimental and clinical psychology started. V.M.Bekhterev described the nerve center of pupil, urinary bladder, some sections of gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system. His works initiated the corticovisceral direction in physiology.
N.A.Mislavsky in his doctoral thesis “On respiratory center” clarified the question on the respiratory center localization. He obtained the facts pointed at the presence of an expiratory and inspiratory sections, described the reflex character of the rhythmical activity of respiratory center and the influence of cerebrum higher sections on respiratory act.
Under the direction of N.A.Mislavsky were discovered vasomotor nerves of thyroid gland (N.A.Sinakevich, 1894), retina (A.A.Elinson, 1896), the studies were made on innervation of rectum (A.V.Vishnevsky, 1903), spleen (N.K.Goryaev, 1910) and others. In 1911 M.N.Cheboksarov in the work “On adrenals secretory nerves” discovered new problems of Kazan physiology school on the study of endocrine gland nerve regulation.
in the field of physicsE.K.Zavoysky discovered the electronic paramagnetic resonance effect (1944).
The name of C.A.Altshuler relates to the formation of new section of condensed mediums physics based on discoveries of electronic, nuclear and acoustic paramagnetic resonance. His studies had a significant influence on development of magnetic radiospectroscopy and the methods became one of the most informative in modern physics.
in other fieldsThe astronomer, professor M.A.Kovalsky for the first time studied in detail the movement of Neptune planet, offered new methods for calculation of the planetoids and binary stars orbits and also for definition of the Solar system movement in space.
The founder of Kazan school of geologists is N.A.Golovkinsky who proved the necessity of historic-genetic approach to the study of the local land geology. The Geology as the science was r developed in the works of A.A.Shtukenberg, P.I.Krotov, M.E.Noinsky, M.E.Yanishevsky.
The great merit in development of the geographical science belongs to S.I.Korginsky who grounded the scientific basis of complex geography – landscape survey.
Historical-cultural complex of the Kazan University
The Kazan State University is not only the oldest educational institution in Russia but the excellent architectural monument – one of the most harmonious and magnificent ensembles in style of Russian classicism.
At present, the Kazan University has on its balance 40 buildings and constructions. The special value belongs to the historic-cultural complex of ancient buildings of the University located in central part of Kazan.
The core of the complex is the main building of Kazan university built in 1825 according to the design of architect N.G.Pyatnitsky with the west annex built in 1905 according to the design of architect K.Mufke. In 1824 and 1825 buildings were erected named later the mechanical and geometry buildings. Since 1833 to 1848 the yard space of the complex had been formed according to the design of architect M.P.Korinfsky. In this period the buildings were constructed now occupied by the chair of astronomy and astronomical observatory, Research Institute of Chemistry named after A.M.Boutlerov, unit of rare manuscripts and books of the science library named after N.I.Lobachevsky, the chair of histology of Kazan State Medical University, the dissecting room. The west and east semicircular buildings of the yard were erected in 1810. M.P.Korinfsky created the extraordinary yard-forum. In such a way the campus network appeared – one of the most harmonious and splendid architectural ensembles in style of Russian classicism of first half of XIX century.
The pride of the University is National library named after N.I.Lobachevsky – one of the largest and oldest libraries in Russia. It counts about five millions books, journals, different editions and documents. In library stocks are kept more than 30 thousands of ancient manuscripts (the most ancient of them belongs to IX century) and also the rarest editions - incunabulums, paleotypes, first printed books, lifetime editions of classics of literature. About 20 thousands readers use the library stocks. The scientific library of the Kazan university is the methodical center for the libraries of institutes of higher education of the Volga region and near-Ural.
The Kazan University has the unique among the institutes of higher education of Russia a combination of different-profile museums. It is not only the memory about the past but good scientific base for the present studies. Among them the History museum of Kazan University (more than 20 thousands items), Museum of Archeology (50 thousands items), Botanical museum (90 thousands items), Geologic-mineralogical museum (50 thousands items), Zoological museum (six thousands items), Museum of Kazan chemical school (six thousands items), Ethnographic museum (six thousands items). All in all there are about 330 thousands items the University museums that are used in scientific, educational and enlighten activity.
There are scientific-educational bases of the University outside of Kazan. Those located in Tatarstan ; Biologic, Geophysical, Zoological stations, base “Ecolog”, scientific-educational base of the oil and gas geology, Magnetic observatory and geologic station on the territory of Ilmen preserve in Ural, Biologic base on White Sea, Zelenchouck astronomic station in North Caucasus. The preparation for opening new joint astronomical observatory in the territory of Turkey comes to an end. This observatory has the telescope with diameter of mirror 1.5 meter.
The Kazan University is the only in Russia who has unusual for educational institutions interfaculty Laboratory of ecological monitoring – independent scientific-practical center of eco-analytical control, monitoring, geo-chemical, lithologic-mineralogical studies and analytical support. This Laboratory has been accredited by the State Committee on standardization, metrology and certification of the Russian Federation as the competent analytical and research center equipped with the modern automated and computerized facilities.
History of university in dates
November 5, (17) 1804 - Affirmative letter on creation of the Kazan Imperial University.
1814 - full opening of university in structure of four branches: moral and political sciences, physical and mathematical sciences, medical sciences and verbal sciences.
1825 - construction of the main building .
1834 - beginning of the edition of Scientific notes of the Kazan university.
1835 - Charter founding three faculties: philosophical (verbal and physics-mathematical branches), legal and medical.
1830th - construction of university complex: buildings of library, chemical laboratory, a dissecting room, astronomical observatory, clinic etc.
1863 - Charter founding four faculties: history -philological, physics-mathematical, legal and medical.
1953 - construction of the chemical building.
1955 - rewarding by an award of the Labour Red Banner.
1970-80 - construction of modern buildings: physical (1977), 2-nd educational (1978), cultural sports complex (1989).
1979 - rewarding by Lenin award.
1996 - Decree of the President of the Russian Federation about inclusion of the Kazan university in the State list of especially valuable objects of a cultural heritage of peoples of the Russian Federation.
2004 - celebration of 200th anniversary from the date of foundation of the Kazan university. Terms of celebrating: November - December, 2004, exact date of celebrating - November 5, 2004.