Millenium of Kazan
Kazan, a city with a thousand-year history, is situated near the great river Volga on the crossroad of ancient trade-routes, joining Europe and Asia, East and West. Different ages have added to the architectural appearance of Kazan. The synthesis of Russian and Tatar culture and the whole history of the city, which witnessed Tatar, Italian and Russian architects, survived the ages of the Bulgars and Golden Horde, are reflected in the Kazan Kremlin ensemble. Fortifications of the Kazan Kremlin and marvelous side-view of the Suyumbike Tower are considered to be symbols of Kazan far outside Tatarstan.
Kazan is proudly called «The World Capital of Tatars». «The largest ancient city of Russia and the most ancient among large ones». The city has mixed population (over 1 200 000) with equal numbers of Russians and Tatars, and hundreds of other nationalities.
For last decades of the XX century Tatarstan scientists and researchers from Moscow, Saint Petersburg and other cities of Russia together with foreign colleagues from Hungary, Austria, France, Czechia, Turkey, Egypt and Scandinavia have carried out deep scientific researches on the origin of the city. Ten unexplored manuscripts, 56 unknown maps where under different names the city was pointed on the place of modern Kazan were found in foreign archival depositories. Twenty archeological excavations were carried out in the territory of Kazan. More than two thousand archeological finds were discovered: different ceramics, arm, rare coins, furnishings, leather and metal artifacts and objects of life. Three international conferences were held on the results of scientific researches and investigations. In 1999 the final international conference «Medieval Kazan: origin and development» took place in the city, bringing together 150 scientists from 16 countries. Participants of the Conference adopted a resolution on the origin of the city of Kazan in the late X-th – early XI-th century, namely in 1004-1005.
On September 1, 1999, the Presidents of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan issued a decree «On celebration of the 1000th anniversary of the city of Kazan». According to these decrees, celebration of the 1000th anniversary of the city of Kazan will be held in August, 2005.
Foundation of the city of Kazan is linked with ancient history of Tatar nation and its direct ancestors – the Volga Bulgars who built up the state of Volga Bulgaria in this region. The city of Kazan was founded at the favorable intersection of the trade routes of Europe and Asia on the brink of X-XI-th centuries as permanent center of the Volga bulgars. In 922 a famous traveler Ibn Fadlan visited Volga Bulgaria. In his notes he mentioned the great fortification on the place of modern Kazan.
Little by little Kazan became one of the most beautiful Bulgar cities. The city was a trade point with wide international contacts. Merchants from Hungary, Kiev Russia, Czechia, countries of Middle Asia and Arab countries visited Kazan. Finds on the territory of Kazan Kremlin testifies this: Czech coin – the earliest and unique for today, minted in 929-930, Arabic coins – silver dirham of the X-th century, Hungarian cover plate, beads, bracelets, ceramics. The Great Volga Route and the North Fur Route passed through Kazan.
The Golden Horde period of development of the city started in 30-40th of the XIII-th century. In the era of power and fall of Golden Horde Kazan changed into important administrative and religious center and grew up as a large city where handicraft industry and international trade prospered. The beauty of architectural Kazan surprised western and eastern travelers, especially by its European-Asian appearance.
Just in that period took place a final formation of a new nation, which was named Tatars of Volga and near Ural.
After disintegration of Golden Horde into separate states Kazan became a capital of powerful independent state in the Middle Volga called Kazan Khanate. It was the time (1445-1552) of political, religious, economical and cultural prosperity of Kazan. But critical ideological and military opposition of Kazan Khanate with Muscovy finished by the defeat and conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible in October 2, 1552. Most Moslem monuments and cultural values were destroyed in the fire of war.
From the second half of the XVI-th century Kazan became the eastern gate of growing Russia, the city of moslem-christian contacts, competition and cooperation.
In the XVIII-th century Kazan occupied the third place among cities of Russia by its population. At the period of Peter’s the Great ruling Kazan became the capital of Kazan province. At that time industrial production appeared and the shipyards were established in Kazan. Caravans of trade ships went up and down the Volga.
Much useful was done for Kazan by Catherine II. She gave Muslims the freedom of conscience and trade, approved the first general city plan, allowed to build mosques/ She also issued ukase «on allowing Tatar Knyazes and Murzas to take all the priority of Russian nobility». The families of Akchurins, Yenikeyevs, Kugushevs, Kudashevs, Tenishevs and others were re-entitled. Muezzins on minarets summoned people to prayers in new monumental mosques built in traditions of Tatar architecture. Several madrasah were established. Kazan was reborn as a new «oriental beauty».
Catherine II after her visit to Kazan in 1767 wrote, «Kazan is the second, just after the Moscow, …the capital of the state».
In July 12, (1774) 20-thousand-men army of Yemelian Pugachev took Kazan by storm. The rebels were cannonading Kazan Kremlin for 2 days at almost no success. But the Kremlin was severely damaged. Dozens of churches and convents were sacked. In July 14 the army of Pugachev was forced to retreat. By the beginning of XIX-th century Kazan had been recovered and rebuilt, according to the official development plan, to get a genuine capital look.
In 1804, the University was opened in Kazan. Its importance in the making of Russian science is great, the scientists of the world level as N.I.Lobachevsky, I.M.Simonov, N.N.Zinin, A.M.Butlerov and many others worked there. The university building in the style of Russian classicism is a decoration of the Kazan historical center.
Broad network of Muslim educational institutions promoted general level of literacy.
In the early XX-th century, the national morale of Tatars arose, culture and education developed. After the revolution of 1905-1907 first Tatar newspapers, magazines and books were issued.
In 1917 Kazan became the second city after the Petrograd (St-Petersburg) where Soviet power was declared.
The foundation of Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialistic Republic in 1920 shaped Kazan's life and appearance. A large industrial area appeared on the bank of the Kazanka river to the north from the city center.
At the same time most of Muslim and Orthodox buildings disappeared one by one. Tatar literature (together with all the writings and show-bills) was transliterated in 1929 to Latin and in 1939 to Cyrillic alphabet. The word «oriental» in the names of the first soviet educational institutions was replaced with «state».
Many things changed in the period of World War II. The greatest scientists, musicians, writers, artists were evacuated to Kazan and were working here. Many industrial enterprises were also evacuated here. Many of those thousands of Kazanners, who had gone to the front became the Heroes of the Soviet Union. In the postwar years Kazan changed. In 1950s with the formation of Kuybyshev reservoir 10 dams with a total length of 25 km were build. The old city center was became surrounded by new growing districts.
Industrial and cultural construction was developing rapidly in the city at that period. It becomes aircraft constructing, medical and chemical center of Russia. The production of its enterprises is in demand and being exported to many countries of the world.
For the last ten years scientific and public institutions, administrative bodies of the city have been actively participating in the work of different international associations. The city gains international recognition. Kazan is the full member of ten international organizations. For today representative bodies of the city concluded cooperation agreements in business –economical, scientific, technical and cultural spheres with 12 cities of Russian Federation and 15 cities of Commonwealth of Independent States.
Today Kazan is one of the largest economical, scientific, cultural centers and ancient cities of Russian Federation. The city is a place of residence of 1.2 mln people and more than 100 nationalities and it combines the unity of two parts – the East and the West with great harmony. This fact explains diversity of confessional and religious associations located on its territory: Moslems, Christians and some others. Twenty-three mosques, sixteen Orthodox temples, Lutheran church, Catholic chapel, Jewish synagogue function here.
At the session of the UNESCO intergovernmental commission held in Kerne (Australia) in November 2000, Kazan Kremlin was officially enlisted as the object of World Heritage. Kazan is recognized a full member of the World Heritage Cities Organization. In 2002 under the aegis of the Council of Europe with the assistance of European Association of Historic Cities and Regions the International Symposium «Cultural Diversity in Historic Cities – Key to Sustainable Future» was held. Representatives from more than 26 countries took part in it.
Kazan is the city of theatres, museums, the city of music, international festivals, rich libraries, newest technologies and new partnership relations. Modern Kazan is a large scientific educational and student center of the Russian Federation, it includes 13 institutions of Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, 30 institutes of higher education, 23 technical secondary institutions. For the thousand-year history Kazan has grown into a beautiful city, one of the largest industrial and cultural centers of the Volga region. Kazan is famous not only for its rich and in many respects mysterious history but also for its wonderful present. Kazan has a unique appearance, ancient traditions, holidays and national customs.
Historical fate of Kazan, its economical and cultural potential have a universal importance. Kazan has unique cultural-historical heritage. The city unites oriental and European cultures, oriental and European self-consciousness and plays particular role in their universal development.
Kazan as industrial, scientific and cultural center
Kazan became industrial, scientific and cultural center. All potential of the city has worked for the republic and for the whole country. New progressive ideas in all spheres of science, culture and art were born in Kazan. Kazan is in the first ranks of civilization progress.
In the field of industry:
The first Kazan powder plant was founded in Russia in 1786 by the decree of Catherine the Great. For the first time in the world practice the continuous technology of coarse-grained gun-cotton powder production was mastered.
Kazan aircraft factory was founded in 1927 and had mastered serial production of the first in the world jet plane TU-104, supersonic aircraft TU-160 and middle range aircraft TU-214.
Catgut factory was built in 1923, which became the member of TPHFO «Tatkhimfarmpreparaty» the only producer of seam operating materials in Russia.
In early 30th of the XXth century the first factory of typewriter «Pishmash» production appeared in the country.
Kazan helicopter plant was founded in 1933. It had produced more than 10 thousand helicopters, mastered serial production of one of the best helicopters in the world MI-8. At present, together with French companies «Eurocopter» and «Euromil» it is assimilating the production of middle-weight helicopter MI-38 and light multi- purpose helicopter of own production «Ansat».
Production of the unique medical instruments for eye microsurgery, cardio-surgery (they were used during the operation on the heart of the first President of Russian Federation B.N.Yeltsin), neurosurgery, and gynecology started at Kazan medico-instrumental factory in 1941. Kazan medical-instrumental plant of the first in the world mixing preparations for pulmonary surgery and tuberculosis and complicated complex «imitation kidney» foundation was a great occasion in the 60th. They were called «Russian satellite in medicine» abroad.
Many types of compressors, including the newest – spiral for the first time in the country were created and produced at Kazan compressor factory which came into operation in 1951.
The construction of accompanying gas processing large enterprise – the organic synthesis plant began in summer 1958. With commissioning second line the plant became the largest in polyethylene production of the country.
In the sphere of science:
During all its centuries-old history Kazan was always known as a center of science and education.
Modern Kazan with the population of 1.2 million people is a large scientific- educational and student center of Russian Federation where 13 institutes of Kazan scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, 30 institutes of higher education of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan, 23 technical schools keep their educational and research activity.
Kazan scientists have made the city of Kazan famous all over the world, largely contributing to the development and formation of world science, reached great practical results. That was famous physical school, represented by the names of E.K.Zavoiskiy, S.A.Altshuler, Kazan chemical school represented by the academician N.N.Zinin, A.M.Butlerov, father and son Arbuzovs, the school of mathematics and mechanics – N.I.Lobachevskiy.
1759 – the first provincial Russian gymnasium opened.
1800 – the first printing-house in Kazan, which was called Asiatic, was set up.
In 1829 Asiatic printing-house became the member of university. By the middle of XIX century it became one of the largest printing-houses in Russia. For a long time Kazan remained the only center of Arabic type books printing.
November, 5(17), 1804 – Kazan university was founded.
1826 - N.I.Lobachevskiy wrote his first work about discovery of non-Euclidean geometry (February).
1833 – the first in Europe department of Mongol opened in Kazan.
1837 – the first in Russia department of Chinese opened.
1848 – the first in Russia departments of Armenian and the Sanskrit languages. Together with Arabo-Persian and Turkish-Tatar departments they made oriental class.
1842 – N.N.Zinin got aniline from nitrobenzene.
1844 – K.K.Klaus discovered ruthenium – metal of platinum group.
1863 –A.Y.Danilevskiy organized the first in the history of Russia department of biochemistry on medical faculty of Kazan university.
1864-1866 – A.M.Butlerov synthesized iodic methene, discovered polymer of formaldehyde, received urotropine and the first imitation sweetener, which was named metheneethane.
1873 – in the laboratory of N.O.Kovalevskiy student N.M.Sokovnin discovered new type of reflex (peripheral or local reflex).
1889 - N.M.Sokovnin and V.M.Rozhanskiy for the first time described special type of reaction, named axon-reflex.
1885 – V.M.Bekhterev organized psychophysical laboratory attached to the chair of nerve and illness diseases in Kazan university. This was the first in Russia and the second in Europe (after Vund laboratory) laboratory where experimental and clinic psychology investigations began to carry out.
Under the direction of N.A.Mislavskiy vasomotor nerves of thyroid gland (N.A.Sinacevich, 1894), retina (A.A.Alinson, 1896) were discovered.
1908 – A.F.Samoylov recorded the first in Russia electrocardiogram in therapeutic clinic of Kazan University.
1930 – V.A.Engelgard discovered the oxidative phosphorylation process.
1930-s - professor N.G.Chetaev originated dynamic stability theory.
1933 – A.V.Kibyakov experimentally proved chemical agents participation in the interneuronal synapses nerve stimulation transmission.
1940-s – the foundation of physicist school which gained the world fame.
1944 – E.K.Zavoyskiy discovered electron spin resonance phenomenon.
1952-54 – A.Z.Petrov proved Einstein three types space existing theorem (later on they got the name of Petrov’s types in world literature). Later it was discovered that belonging to second and third Petrov’s types pointed to space gravitational radiation existence.
1969 – for the first time in USSR Kazan university began to train specialists in the sphere of preservation of the environment – ecology.
1970 – A.R.Kessel and I.A.Safin discovered the electro-acoustic echo phenomenon in piezoelectric crystals.
1974 – I.B.Khaybullin discovered semi-conductor particles impulse recrystallization phenomenon – laser annealing.
1983 – I.V.Ovchinnikov, U.G.Galyametdinov produced the first magnet metal-containing liquid crystal.
1985 –A.P.Nesterov discovered scleral eye sine blockade phenomenon.
1999 – the first Tatar encyclopaedia was issued by the Tatar encyclopaedia institute.
2001 Germany – professor Salikhov (KHC RAN) was marked by Humboldtite prize for the important contribution to spin dynamics in light-induced chemical reactions study including separation of charges in photosystems reaction centers.
Scientific medical schools of all-Russian and European importance were founded in Kazan. The names of anatomist P.F.Lesgaft, histologist K.A.Arnshtein, physiologist N.A.Mislavskiy, pathologists V.V.Pashutin and A.D.Ado, therapeutists N.A.Vinigradov, S.S.Zimnitskiy and A.G.Teregulov, surgeons V.I.Razumovskiy and A.V.Vishnevskiy (founder of original method of local anaesthetization and Novocaine blockade and oil-balsam bandage inflammatory disease treatment), obstetrician-gynecologist V.S.Gruzdev, oculist E.V.Adamyuk (founder of gynecologist chair in the university and first clinic of eye diseases in Kazan; his work «On intraocular tension» got the world fame) had gone down in history of our country and science.
Astronomer P.S.Poretskiy the first in Russia had worked out mathematic logic.
I.S.Gromeca by his works grounded modern capillarity theory.
Professor M.A.Kovalskiy for the first time examined Neptune planet motion in details, suggested new methods of small planets and twin stars orbits calculation and also solar system movement definition in space.
A.E.Arbuzov under the direction of professor A.M.Zaytsev performed the work of allylmetilphenylcarbinol production (for the first time in the history of Russian chemistry organomagnesium synthesis was put into practice). A.E.Arbuzov was one of the founders of soviet hetero-organic chemistry.
Another treasure of the city is a unique museum of Kazan university, well known in the country and abroad. It includes unique collection of exhibits of Zoological museum, organized in 1838; Ethnographical museum, started at the time of university foundation, Geological museum, based in 1805 on the collection of teacher Popov from Perm, containing more than 100 000 various rocks and minerals, including precious and semiprecious stones patterns – emeralds, topazes, rubies, garnets, sapphires, amethysts.
In the sphere of culture:
The history of the city is linked with such prominent Russian writers as A.N.Radishev, I.A.Goncharov, A.i.Gertsen, V.A.Zhucovskiy, A.S.Pushkin, L.n.Tolstoy, N.G.Chernyshevskiy, M.E.Saltykov-Shedrin, F.M.Dostaevskiy, T.Shevchenko, A.N.Astrovskiy, V.G.Korolenko, A.P.Chekhov, G.I.Uspenskiy.
G.Tukay, M.Dzhalil, M.Phayzi, M.Gafuri, F.Amirkhan, F.Shalyapin, G.Kamal, Kh.Taktash, A.Kutuy, F.Karim, K.Tinchurin, Kh.Tuphan, S.Khakim, O.Lundstrem, N.Fattakh, A.Absalyamov, R.Fayzullin, A.Gulyazov, S.Gubaydullin, G.Bashirov, S.Suleymanov, M.Khasanov, N.Yuzeev and many others became Kazan prominent writers and poets.
In 1806 in Kazan University Kazan literature-lovers society appeared – the first literature community of the Volga region. The members of this association were not only teachers and students but also the writers from Kazan, the Volga region and Ural.
In 40-s of the XIX-th century in Kazan appeared purely Tatar printing houses.
Tatar art which had not such forms as painting, sculpture, architecture since last exposed itself in splendid smart embroideries, weaving, jewelry, shamails, applications of color leather and graphical miniatures which embellished the Quran.
Kazan is a theatrical city. Many generations have grown up in this wonderful atmosphere.
In XIX-th century Kazan was called «The Volga Athens». Here was one of the biggest theatres in Russia for 1200 seats. Concert life was developed and mainly concentrated in Nobility meeting hall, different musical societies functioned there, the first musical schools, courses and study groups appeared.
In 1791, one of the first in the country, Russian professional theatre appeared. It was founded under the direction of invited actor laureate V.Bobrovskiy.
In 1803 landowner P.P.Esipov built the first city theatre. Very soon it became prestige Russian stage. P.Plavilshikov, M.Shepkin, P.Mochalov, A.Martynov, P.Strepetova, M.Savina, V.Davidov, V.Kachalov and other prominent Russian actors performed there. In the second half of the XIX-th century Kazan theatre, according to the evidence of contemporaries, was the best in Russia. Debut of young Theodor Shalyapin took place on its scene.
December 22, 1906, is an official date of birth of professional Tatar theatre.
Particular period of musical history of Kazan and its region began in 1930-s. Composers Union, appeared at this period in the capital of the republic, the Tatar Great Opera and Ballet Theatre, Philharmonic Society, Song and Dance ensemble became the signs of a new culture. For several decades it would have to make a great jump: at the beginning of the XX-th century Tatar musicians who did not know writing note traditions wrote musical drams, operas, symphonies, choral works. Many of them were the first samples and were immediately found in the rank of classics just like the names of their authors – Saydashev, Yarullin, Zhiganov, Klucharev, Fayzi, later – Yakhin will enter golden Tatar musical culture fund.
Today musical life of the capital of Tatarstan is intensive as never before. Opera festival named after Shalyapin, ballet festival, named after Nuriev, annual piano festival «Pianoforum» organized by conservatoire have gained international authority, without these actions it is impossible to imagine the musical culture of the region. Regional and republican contests of young performers, international and all-Russian festivals (of pianists, violinist and vocalists) organized in Kazan tell about growing level of masterful skill. Various performers groups (Kazan State chamber orchestra «La Primavera», State folk instruments orchestra, State string quartet of the Republic of Tatarstan, Tatar music orchestra and KGK opera studio chorus), with great success present the city of Kazan at many concert pavilions today.
In XX century Kazan did not only strengthen the previous glory but became one of the largest musical centers of Russia. Today the city has three musical institutes of higher education, several musical high schools, dozens of musical schools, conservatory, philharmonic society, the best concert hall in Russia, the Tatar Opera and Ballet theatre, Composers Union, folklore offices and houses of creation, Tatar Song and Dance ensemble, philharmonic and jazz orchestras, musical shops and, of course, the audience who fills up the halls, theatres and musical museums every day.
The main musical institution for the period of more than half a century remains Kazan state conservatory, opened in 1945. Philharmonic, chamber, brass band, orchestra of folk instruments, orchestra of Tatar folk music, opera studio, chorus choir function here. According to the performing level Kazan conservatory is one of the best in Russia.
Technical equipment of Big concert hall, named after Saydashev is one of the best modern halls in Russia and it makes possible to invite the leading masters of world performing art to Kazan. For the last five years V.Gergiev, M.Pletnev, V.Spivakov, Z.Sotkilava, E.Obraztsova, king of Russian jazz Oleg Lundstrem who began his creative development in Kazan and other outstanding musicians had performed here.
Important festivals of modern music, devoted to A.Shnitke, S.Gubaydullina were realized by efforts of the people of Kazan.
Kazan artistically-technical institute founded on the base of previous art school became the center of art education in the city in post-revolution period. The names of such masters as B.Urmanche, I.I.Shishkin, G.P.Katkova, Kh.Yacupov, L.Fattakhov, N.I.Feshin, K.Vasiliev and some other artists received an international reputation.
One of the largest and considerable treasures of art of Russian Federation is State fine arts museum of the Republic of Tatarstan. Today its collection counts more than ten thousand works of art, sculpture, drawing, theatrical-decorative, applied and folk art. Collections of West European (Italy, France, Holland, Germany) and Eastern (India, Chine, Japan) art are stored in the funds of museum.
Such manes as Lobachevskiy, Shalapin, Tolsloy, Bekhterev, Mardzhani, Tukay, Kamay, Zhiganov, Saydashev and many others became essential part of our culture. We are proud of their contribution to the world culture. Kazan is really a metropolitan city not only as administrative center but also as a center of Tatar and Russian cultures.
Kazan sportsmen, masters of rowing Nikolay Teterkin and Igor Feoctistov, volleyball player N.Fasakhov, free-style wrestling champion of USSR 1956 Linar Salimullin, fivefold champion of RSFSR, international chess master Rashit Nezhmetdinov, famous young chess player Alisa Galyamova, football player Nicolay Sentyabrev, wrestlers R.Safin, V.Sergeev, V.Fuzeev, A.Bardin, V.Shabanov, V.Emelyanov, celebrated sport master Aleksandr Kurynov are famous all over the world. Representatives from Kazan fencing school Valentina Nikonova, Nailya Dilyazova and Olga Knyazeva became repeated world champions. Olga Voshakina had taken the baton from this trio. And should the names of Denis Capustin, Svetlana Demina, Aleksandr Fadeev, Liliya Averyanova be mentioned.
1894 – the first chess club in Russia opened in Kazan. It became the member of four existed at that time in Russia – in Saint-Petersburg, Kharkov, Tashkent.
1947 – all-union canoe boat race among juniors was held for the first time in Kazan.
1952 – Kazan sportsmen N.Terkin and I.Feaktistov (canoe boat race) as the members of National USSR team participated for the first time in the Olympic Games in Helsinki.
1955 – canoe boat race RSFSR championship was held for the first time in Kazan.
1967 - for the first time in Russia final of sports and athletics meeting of the people of RSFSR was held in Kazan
1971 – boxing championship was held for the first time in Kazan
From 1978 - All-Union and from 1992 all-Russian heavy athletics tournament in memory of A.Kurynov was held for the first time in Kazan
From 1993 – international weight sport competitions in the memory of N.Zhrebtsov was held for the first time in Kazan
1997 – circumnavigation by Kazan sailing yacht «North Star» (starting August, 30, 1997, finish May, 8, 1999) was made for the first time in the history of Russia and Republic of Tatarstan. They navigated during 20 months and had over passed 15 seas and 3 oceans. The total way extension was more than 5000 km. The way through the South Australian Island was over passed for the first time in the Russian sailing sport history.
- Eurasia kick-boxing championship,
- European team championship among chess masters club teams were held for the first time in Kazan
- Russian hockey international competitions for the prize of Russia Federation Government
- «All Russian stars» match East-West
were held for the first time in Kazan.
- volleyball match «Mirovaya Liga» Russia-Germany international competitions
- international Rugby meeting – 13 USA-Tatarstan
- international title fight for the intercontinental champion title with the participation champion of Russia Vadim Tokarev (Kazan) and Argentina champion Luis Oscar Rical (Buenos Aires) were held for the first time in Kazan.
Kazan sportsmen had repeatedly won the prize places in various kinds of sport at the Olympic Games in:
1960 – Alexander Curynov had taken the first prize in heavy athletics (in weight category 75 kg) during the games of 17-th Olympic Games in Rome.
1976 – Olga Knyazeva, Nailya Gilyazova and Valentina Nikonova took the first prize in fencing during the games of 21-th Olympic Games in Montreal.
1980 – Olga Rukovishnikova took the second prize in pentathlon, Nailya Gilyazova had taken the second place in fencing during the games of 22-th Olympic Games in Moscow.
2001 – Denis Capystin took the third prize in light athletics (triple jump), Svetlana Demina took the second prize in stand shooting, Anastasiya Kolesnikova had taken the second place in sport gymnastics during the games of 27-th Olympic Games in Sydney.
Federal target programme «Preservation and Development of the Historic Centre of Kazan» from March, 14, 2002 №180 approved by resolution of Government of Russian Federation is realized in Kazan at the expense of federal and municipal budget funds
Taking into account the important role of Kazan in the history of Russia President of Russian Federation issued the edict «About celebration of the 1000th anniversary of the city of Kazan». According to the resolution of the Government of Russian Federation from January, 28, 2000 №79 State Commission for the preparation for the 1000th anniversary of the city of Kazan was founded. By the decree of the Government of Russian Federation from March, 3, 2001 the Programme for the preparation for the 1000th anniversary of the city of Kazan was approved.
Celebration of the 1000th anniversary of the city of Kazan and festivities will continue not less than a month in August 2005. The exact date of celebration is August, 30.
The most important events chronology.
922 – Adoption of Islam by Volga Bulgaria
985 – peace between Volga Bulgaria and Kievskaya Rusya.
XI-th century – Kazan foundation.
1212 – the most ancient written memorial of Tatar literature: epic poem by Kul Gali «Saga of Yusuf».
1446 – Kazan is the capital of Kazan Khanate.
1486 – «Eternal Peace» treaty between Moscow and Kazan.
1552 – Siege and defeat of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible.
1708 – Kazan is the capital of province
1742 – A peak of religious persecutions on Islam.
1774 – Defeat by storm of Yemelian Pugachev.
1788 – Catherine II restores the freedom of conscience to Muslims.
1801 – Start of province printing-house operation.
1804 – Kazan University foundation.
1826 – Public declaration of non-Euclidian geometry by Lobachevsky.
1871 – First edition of annual Tatar calendar by Kayum Nasyri.
1906 – First public performance on Tatar.
1918 – The fall of «Zabulachnaya Respublika».
1989 – 1100 years of Islam in the Volga region (according to Muslim calendar).
1990 – Declaration of independence of Tatarstan Republic.
1994 –Treaty between Moscow and Kazan.