From 1990 the republic has adopted three crucial documents - the Declaration of State Sovereignty (August 30, 1990), the Constitution (November 30, 1992) and the Treaty with the Russian Federation on Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Powers (February 15, 1994). The three documents together form the basis for legal state, political stability of the society, economic reforms.

On April 19, 2002, the State Council of Tatarstan adopted the revised version of the Constitution. The Constitution proclaims an individual, his rights and liberties the highest value and obliges the Republic of Tatarstan to accept, observe and protect human and civil rights and freedoms. The Tatarstan Constitution provides for such principles as universal suffrage, freedom of speech, freedom of conscience, right to participate in political parties and organizations, etc.

In accordance with the Tatarstan Constitution, from June 2000 the republic has the institution of the Commissioner for human rights in the Republic of Tatarstan.

The post of Commissioner for the child rights in the Tatarstan Republic is founded in 2010.

The Tatarstan Constitution secures the division of legislative, executive and judicial powers.

The President is the head of state and highest official in Tatarstan. He heads the executive system of the republic and directs the Cabinet of Ministers - executive and administrative authority. The Cabinet is accountable to the President. The candidature of a Prime Minister is suggested by the President and approved by the Parliament of Tatarstan.

Unicameral State Council (Parliament) is the supreme representative and legislative authority of Tatarstan.

The bodies of local self-government are independent within their powers and do not belong to the system of state authorities.